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Book of Abraham/Joseph Smith Papyri/Preservation of Ancient Core
Preservation of the Ancient Core of the Book of AbrahamSummary: The papyri from which the Book of Abraham date to between 300 BCE - 100 AD. Some have asked how a story about Abraham, who is claimed to live in the year 2000 BCE, can possibly retain an ancient core given the long amount of time it would have to survive scribal transmission. These articles explore these charges.
Jump to Subtopic:
- Question: Since the papyri from which the Book of Abraham was translated date to the 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE, does this mean that the events recorded in the Book of Abraham cannot be historical?
Question: Since the papyri from which the Book of Abraham was translated date to the 3rd century BCE to the 1st century CE, does this mean that the events recorded in the Book of Abraham cannot be historical?
Introduction to the Criticism
In 1835, Joseph Smith, founder of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, began the translation of some Egyptian papyri that was sold to him in the Church’s then-headquarters—Kirtland, Ohio. Joseph Smith claimed that the papyri purported to be the writings of the ancient biblical patriarch Abraham. This translation was made part of the official canon of the Church in the 1880s.
In 1967, the Church acquired some surviving fragments of the papyri from which the translation was rendered from the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art through the help of Dr. Aziz Atiya, a professor at the University of Utah.
As papyrological work was done, scholars discovered that the papyrus dated to at least 1700 years (Between 300 BCE – 100 CE) after the prophet Abraham is traditionally claimed to have lived (2000 BCE).
Many have naturally asked the question of how can the papyri date to such a late time and record genuinely historical events from the life of a supposedly historical prophet.
This article addresses the question.
Review of the Criticism
Examples of Texts that have Survived for Long Periods of Time
In response to the above criticism, it may be noted that we do have knowledge of texts that record historical events and survive scribal transmission for a long period of time.
What's more, narrative texts from the Middle Kingdom period in Egyptian history like the Story of Sinuhe were preserved in copies belonging to the New Kingdom period, which would be around 700+ years of transmission.
Perhaps our best parallel would be the Holy Bible. It has a pretty long manual transmission history from autographs penned in the Iron Age all the way down to when they were placed in print editions of the Bible starting in the 1500s. In other words, people were hand-copying these texts with a fair degree of accuracy for over 3,000 years and yet we hold their texts as fairly accurate historically speaking.
Elements of the Book of Abraham that Date to the Time of Abraham
Elements from the Book of Abraham that can definitively place it in the time that the historical Abraham is claimed to live can help us construct the historical core of the Book of Abraham and bolster the claim of historical authenticity. Some of these elements that can more than plausibly date to Abraham’s day include:
- Human sacrifice
- The God of Elkenah
- The idolatrous gods represented by the canopic jars in facsimile 1.
- Stating that autographs are “written in the hand” of that person.
- Identification of Shinehah as “the sun”.
- The name "Shulem" as reference to the king's waiter.
- The astronomy of the Book of Abraham.
- The identification of a crocodile as "The God of Pharoah".
These and other elements can help to understand that, even though a text does have a very, very long transmission history, it can still plausibly preserve literal historical events from the lives of the first authors. That does not mean that the text must be ancient in every regard. Scribes could have made inspired emendations to the text over the years and we would still have a text that dates originally to the time of Abraham. In sum, we have no reason to believe that the dating of the papyri from which the Book of Abraham was translated threatens the possibility of being genuine writings from the prophet Abraham and no reason to believe that the dating of the papyri threatens the core theology of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
- Anonymous, "Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham," Gospel Topics Essays. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. <https://www.churchofjesuschrist.org/study/manual/gospel-topics-essays/translation-and-historicity-of-the-book-of-abraham?lang=eng&query=Abraham>. Accessed November 4, 2019.
- John Gee, "The Idolatrous Gods of Pharoah," Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship: forthcoming.
- Anonymous, "Abraham and Idrimi," Pearl of Great Price Central. August 1, 2019. <https://www.pearlofgreatpricecentral.org/abraham-and-idrimi/>. Accessed November 4, 2019.
- Anonymous, "Shinehah, The Sun," Pearl of Great Price Central. October 23, 2019. <https://www.pearlofgreatpricecentral.org/shinehah-the-sun/>. Accessed November 4, 2019.
- John Gee, "Shulem, One of the King's Principal Waiters," Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship 19 (2016): 383-395 off-site.