Book of Mormon/Geography/Models/External

Table of Contents

Model name: General 1830s

Date proposed: 1830
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: South America
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Magdalena?
Landing: Chile
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Times and Seasons 1842

Date proposed: 1842
Scope: HGT?
Narrow neck: Unclear
Land north: Tehuantepec-NY?
Land south: Unclear
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Unclear
Landing: Colombia
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Pratt 1866

Date proposed: 1866
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: South America
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Magdalena
Landing: Chile
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Com.-Maes 1880

Date proposed: 1880
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: South America
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Magdalena
Landing: Chile
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Reynolds 1880

Date proposed: 1880
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: South America
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Magdalena
Landing: Chile
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Plain Facts 1887

Date proposed: 1887
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Guatemala
Land south: South America
Cumorah: New York?
Sidon: Magdalena
Landing: Chile?
Religion: LDS
Type: Minimal external

Model name: Roberts 1888

Date proposed: 1888
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: South America
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Magdalena
Landing: Chile
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: RLDS/Wes 1900?

Date proposed: 1900
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: South America
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Magdalena
Landing: Chile
Religion: RLDS
Type: External

Model name: Ricks 1904

Date proposed: 1904
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: South America
Cumorah: Unclear
Sidon: Magdalena
Landing: Chile
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Hills 1917

Date proposed: 1917
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Central Mexico
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Central America
Religion: RLDS
Type: External

Model name: Young pre-1920?

Date proposed: 1920
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Other
Land north: Guatemala
Land south: Honduras-El Salvador
Cumorah: Guatemala
Sidon: Ulna
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Gunsolley 1922

Date proposed: 1922
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: South America
Cumorah: Central Mexico
Sidon: Magdalena
Landing: Chile?
Religion: RLDS
Type: Minimal external

Model name: Driggs 1925

Date proposed: 1925
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Honduras Bay
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: Southern Guatemala
Cumorah: Guatemala
Sidon: Ulna
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Bagley 1927

Date proposed: 1927
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Belize-Yucatan base
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Unclear
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Unclear
Landing: Unclear
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Sjodhal 1927

Date proposed: 1927
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: Tehuantepec-NY
Land south: Unclear
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Unclear
Landing: Chile
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Jakeman 1940s

Date proposed: 1940
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Central Mexico
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Laytons 1940?

Date proposed: 1940
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: Tehuantepec-NY
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Unclear
Religion: LDS
Type: Internal and Minimal External

Model name: Wilde 1947

Date proposed: 1947
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: South America?
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Unclear
Landing: Chile?
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Birrell 1948

Date proposed: 1948
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Other
Land north: Ecuador-Colombia
Land south: Peru and south
Cumorah: In South America
Sidon: In Peru
Landing: Chile
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Simmons 1948

Date proposed: 1948
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Central America
Religion: RLDS
Type: External

Model name: Ferguson-Hunter 1950

Date proposed: 1950
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz
Sidon: Usumacinta?
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: Minimal internal & external

Model name: Stout 1950

Date proposed: 1950
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Other
Land north: Unclear
Land south: Other
Cumorah: Unclear
Sidon: Other
Landing: Central America
Religion: RLDS
Type: External

Model name: Hanson 1951

Date proposed: 1951
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz?
Sidon: Unclear
Landing: Central America?
Religion: RLDS
Type: Minimal external

Model name: Pierce 1954

Date proposed: 1954
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Other
Land north: Yucatan Peninsula
Land south: Unclear
Cumorah: Guatemala
Sidon: Ulna
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Sorenson 1955

Date proposed: 1955
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Tehuantepec - El Salvador
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz
Sidon: Grijalva
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Dixon 1958

Date proposed: 1958
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: South America
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Unclear
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Hammond 1959

Date proposed: 1959
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec?
Land north: Unclear
Land south: Tehuantepec - El Salvador?
Cumorah: Central Mexico?
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Chile
Religion: LDS
Type: Internal and Minimal External

Model name: Lowe 1960a

Date proposed: 1960
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Honduras Bay
Land north: Guatemala
Land south: Other
Cumorah: Guatemala
Sidon: Unclear
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Lowe 1960b

Date proposed: 1960
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Other
Land north: Unclear
Land south: Other
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz?
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Vincent 1960?

Date proposed: 1960
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Central Mexico
Sidon: Usumacinta?
Landing: Central America?
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Warren 1960

Date proposed: 1960
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec?
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Central Mexico
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Warren 1961

Date proposed: 1961
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Unclear
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Norman 1966

Date proposed: 1966
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec?
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan?
Cumorah: Unclear
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Christensen 1969

Date proposed: 1969
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Belize-Yucatan base
Land north: Yucatan Peninsula
Land south: Unclear
Cumorah: Guatemala?
Sidon: Ulna
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Lowe 1970s

Date proposed: 1970
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Other
Land north: Unclear
Land south: Other
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz?
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Central America?
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Priddis 1975

Date proposed: 1975
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Other
Land north: Ecuador-Colombia
Land south: Other
Cumorah: In South America
Sidon: Unclear
Landing: Chile
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Steede 1975

Date proposed: 1975
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz?
Sidon: Usumacinta?
Landing: Central America
Religion: RLDS
Type: External

Model name: Loving 1976

Date proposed: 1976
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Unclear
Religion: RLDS
Type: External

Model name: DeLong 1977

Date proposed: 1977
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: Yucatan Peninsula
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Central Mexico
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Unclear
Religion: RLDS
Type: External

Model name: Le Poidevin 1977

Date proposed: 1977
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: Other
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Maranon?
Landing: Chile
Religion: RLDS
Type: External

Model name: Robison 1977

Date proposed: 1977
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Belize-Yucatan base
Land north: Yucatan Peninsula
Land south: Southern Guatemala
Cumorah: Guatemala
Sidon: Usumacinta
Landing: Unclear
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Lesh 1980

Date proposed: 1980
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz
Sidon: Ulna
Landing: Central America
Religion: RLDS
Type: External

Model name: Palmer 1981

Date proposed: 1981
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Tehuantepec - El Salvador
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz
Sidon: Grijalva
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Holley 1983

Date proposed: 1983
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Niagara peninsula
Land north: Lower Canada?
Land south: NY, Penn, Ohio
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Genesse
Landing: New England coast
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Porritt 1985

Date proposed: 1985
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz
Sidon: Grijalva
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Kocherhans 1986

Date proposed: 1986
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Other
Land north: Ecuador-Colombia
Land south: Peru and south
Cumorah: In South America
Sidon: In Peru
Landing: Chile
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Sahlin 1987

Date proposed: 1987
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Unclear
Land north: Unclear
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Unclear
Sidon: Grijalva
Landing: Unclear
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Warren 1987

Date proposed: 1987
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Tehuantepec - El Salvador
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz
Sidon: Grijalva
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Curtis 1988

Date proposed: 1988
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Niagara Peninsula
Land north: Unclear
Land south: Other
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Unclear
Landing: Unclear
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Hauck 1988

Date proposed: 1988
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Other
Land north: Unclear
Land south: Southern Guatemala
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz
Sidon: Other
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Hobby-Smith 1988

Date proposed: 1988
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck: Panama
Land north: Panama to NY
Land south: South America
Cumorah: Central Mexico
Sidon: Unclear
Landing: Chile?
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Qulter 1988

Date proposed: 1988
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Belize-Yucatan base
Land north: Yucatan Peninsula
Land south: Southern Guatemala
Cumorah: Unclear
Sidon: Other
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Allen 1989

Date proposed: 1989
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Southern Veracruz
Sidon: Grijalva
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Clark 1989

Date proposed: 1989
Scope: N/A
Narrow neck: N/A
Land north: N/A
Land south: N/A
Cumorah: N/A
Sidon: N/A
Landing: N/A
Religion: LDS
Type: Internal

Model name: Ellsworth 1980

Date proposed: 1980
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Other
Land north: Unclear
Land south: Other
Cumorah: Unclear
Sidon: Other
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: Internal & limited external

Model name: Olive 2001

Date proposed: 2001
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck:  [needs work]
Land north:  [needs work]
Land south:  [needs work]
Cumorah:  [needs work]
Sidon:  [needs work]
Landing:  [needs work]
Religion: LDS
Type:  [needs work]

Model name: Goble-May 2002

Date proposed: 2002
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Niagara Peninsula
Land north: Upper Canada
Land south: Eastern US/Midwest
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Mississippi
Landing: Gulf of Mexico
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Pate 2002

Date proposed: 2002
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Bridge over Samalá River (Mukulic-ya) at Santa Crúz Muluá, Guatemala
Land north: Mam Culture, Western Pacific Piedmont of Guatemala
Land south: Cotzumalhuapa Culture, Southern Pacific Piedmont of Guatemala
Cumorah: Cumarkah (Utatlán) Santa Crúz del Quiché, Guatemala
Sidon: There are two -- Pantaleon (Alma 2:15) and Michatoya (Alma 16:6), Guatemala
Landing: Acajutla, El Salvador
Religion: LDS
Type: External with complete internal correlation

Model name: Wunderli 2002

Date proposed: 2002
Scope: HGT
Narrow neck:  [needs work]
Land north:  [needs work]
Land south:  [needs work]
Cumorah:  [needs work]
Sidon:  [needs work]
Landing:  [needs work]
Religion: Critic
Type:  [needs work]

Model name: Meldrum 2003

Date proposed: 2003?
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Niagara Peninsula
Land north: Upper Canada
Land south: Mississippi river system to Gulf of Mexico
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Mississippi
Landing: Gulf of Mexico
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Goble 2004

Date proposed: 2004
Scope: LGT/HGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: From Tehuantepec Northward
Land south: Mesoamerica/Preclassic Maya
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Undetermined
Landing: Undetermined
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: Poulsen 2004

Date proposed: 2004
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Tehuantepec
Land north: South-Central Mexico
Land south: Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan
Cumorah: Tepetzintla (further North than Veracruz)
Sidon: Grijalva
Landing: Central America
Religion: LDS
Type: External

Model name: TRUE-BOMG 2004

Date proposed: 2004
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Very narrow area of Buffalo, NY
Land north: Lake Tonawanda to Lake Ontario
Land south: Lake Tonawanda to Erie, PA
Cumorah: Jaredite final battle at Rochester, NY; Nephite at NY site of plates
Sidon: Buffalo River and Cazenovia Creek
Landing: Presque Isle Bay in Erie, PA
Religion: BOMC
Type: Internal & External

Model name: Sudweeks 2013

Date proposed: 2013
Scope: LGT
Narrow neck: Niagara Peninsula
Land north: Upper Ontario Canada
Land south: Niagara Peninsula, New York, and southward
Cumorah: New York
Sidon: Niagara River
Landing: West of Lake Ontario
Religion: LDS
Type: External and Internal