Criticism of Mormonism/Books/One Nation Under Gods/Use of sources/Reformed Egyptian
Is there a language called "Reformed Egyptian"?
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A FairMormon Analysis of: One Nation Under Gods, a work by author: Richard Abanes
One Nation under Gods, page 55 (hardback and paperback)
The book claims that "reputable scholars" have said that there is no such language as "Reformed Egyptian."
Endnote 60, page 508 (hardback)
John A. Wilson, letter to Marvin Cowan, March 16, 1966. Quoted in Tanner and Tanner, The Changing World [of Mormonism], 144. . . . University of Chicago Egyptologist Klaus Baer has gone so far as to refer to Smith's Book of Mormon characters as senseless "doodlings" (Sunstone, May-June 1980, 30. Quoted in Tanner and Tanner, The Changing World [of Mormonism], 144. . . .
Endnote 60, page 506 (paperback)
[Expanded citations from those provided in the hardback edition]
Question: What is "reformed Egyptian"?
The term "reformed Egyptian" is the name which the Nephites have given to a script based upon Egyptian characters, and modified over the course of a thousand years
Moroni makes it clear that "reformed Egyptian" is the name which the Nephites have given to a script based upon Egyptian characters, and modified over the course of a thousand years (See Mormon 9:32). So, it is no surprise that Egyptians or Jews have no script called "reformed Egyptian," as this was a Nephite term.
There are, however, several variant Egyptian scripts which are "reformed" or altered from their earlier form
There are, however, several variant Egyptian scripts which are "reformed" or altered from their earlier form. Hugh Nibley and others have pointed out that the change from Egyptian hieroglyphics, to hieratic, to demotic is a good description of Egyptian being "reformed." By 600 BC, hieratic was used primarily for religious texts, while demotic was used for daily use. off-site
One can see how hieroglyphics developed into the more stylized hieratic, and this process continued with the demotic:
What could be a better term for this than an Egyptian script that has been "reformed"?
Examples from the Holy Land 7th and 6th century before Christ
More recent research provides further corroboration:
The fourth presentation at BYU’s Willes Center for Book of Mormon Studies conference on 31 August 2012 was on “Writing in 7th Century BC Levant,” by Stefan Wimmer of the University of Munich. It was entitled “Palestinian Hieratic.” He examined an interesting phenomena in Hebrew inscriptions, the use of Egyptian hieratic (cursive hieroglyphic) signs.
Basically Hebrew scribes used Egyptian signs for various numerals, weights and measures. The changes in the form of these signs parallel similar chronological changes in the form of Egyptian hieratic characters, which indicates continued contact of some sort between Egyptian and Hebrew scribes, probably over several centuries. (If there had been a single scribal transmission with no ongoing contact, the changes in the Hebrew forms of hieratic signs would not parallel contemporary changes in Egyptian hieratic forms.) No other Semitic language used Egyptian hieratic signs except Hebrew (with one possible Moabite example.)
There are a couple of hundred examples of such texts, the majority dating from the late seventh century, and geographically mainly from Jerusalem southward. The phenomena ends after the Babylonian captivity. (In other words, Palestinian hieratic is most common in precisely the time and location of Lehi and Nephi, and only exists in Hebrew.)
Documents from the kingdoms of both Israel and Judah, but not the neighboring kingdoms, of the eighth and seventh centuries contain Egyptian hieratic signs (cursive hieroglyphics) and numerals that had ceased to be used in Egypt after the tenth century (Philip J. King and Lawrence E. Stager, Life in Biblical Israel (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 2001), 311.)
German Egyptologist Stefan Wimmer calls this script "palestinian Hieratic." See Stefan Wimmer, Palästinisches Hieratisch: Die Zahl- und Sonderzeichen in der althebräischen Schrift, Ägypten und Altes Testament 75 (Germany: Harrassowitz Wiesbaden, 2008).
William Hamblin provides additional example of such reformation of Egyptian, including:
- Byblos Syllabic texts
- Cretan hieroglyphics
- Psalm 20 in demotic Egyptian
- Proto-Sinaitic and the alphabet
Given that Moroni says the Nephites then modified the scripts further, "reformed Egyptian" is an elegant description of both the Old World phenomenon, and what Moroni says happened among the Nephites.