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Mormonism and temples/Inverted Stars on LDS Temples/Further Reading
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Some people view either upright or inverted five-pointed stars in an adverse way. For sources that address both of these configurations in several modern and ancient cultures see the following:
- Jan Schouten, The Pentagram as a Medical Symbol: An Iconological Study (Netherlands: H&DG Publishers, 1968), 98 pp.
- Piotr Sadowski, “Sir Gawain’s Pentacle: The Imago Hominis and the Virtue of Temperance” in Piotr Sadowski, The Knight on His Quest: Symbolic Patterns of Transition in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1996), 109–49.
- Koji Miyazaki, “A Mystic History of Fivefold Symmetry in Japan” in Istvan Hargittai, ed., Fivefold Symmetry (River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing, 1992), 361–93 [p. 368 - inverted].
- William F. Albright, “Light on the Jewish State in Persian Times,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, no. 53 (February 1934): 20.
- Steen E. Rasmussen, Experiencing Architecture (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1962), 107.
- Marie-Therese Zenner, ed., Villard’s Legacy: Studies in Medieval Technology, and Art (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2004), 7–8, nt. #8.
- Robert S. Hawker, Footprints of Former Men in Far Cornwall (New York: John Lane, 1903), 13–14 [see esp. fig. 2 adjacent to p. 14 – chancel roof boss, Morwenstow].
- John McClintock and James Strong, Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1889), 7:901 [interpreted as “representing the five fingers of the hand of Omnipotence”].
- Valerie C. Coffey, “Does Venus Form a Pentacle as it Moves Across the Sky?” Sky and Telescope, vol. 112, no. 10 (October 2006): 102.
- Alva W. Steffler, Symbols of the Christian Faith (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1992), 82.
- Arthur C. Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry (Edinburgh: T. C. and E. C. Jack, 1909), 295–96.
- Kurt Weitzmann, "Thirteenth Century Crusader Icons on Mount Sinai," The Art Bulletin, vol. 45, no. 3, September 1963, 179-203 [many inverted stars].
- Ancient Egyptian five-pointed star symbolism. off-site
- Late 19th to early 20th century American flag with all stars inverted. off-site
- No author listed, “The Pentagram.” off-site
- Inverted pentacle located “on the ancient synagogue of Tell Hum” – “Magen David,” The Jewish Encyclopedia, 252. off-site
- Abbey McGehee, “Reappraising the Design Methods of Medieval Architecture,” Metascience, vol. 18, no. 3 (November 2009): 455–58. off-site
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