Question: Did Joseph Smith identify any elements of Facsimile 2 that are in agreement with what Egyptologists say they represent?

Table of Contents

Question: Did Joseph Smith identify any elements of Facsimile 2 that are in agreement with what Egyptologists say they represent?

Many authentic and ancient motifs are related to the explanation of this figure.

Kolob...nearest to the celestial, or the residence of God.

John Tvedtnes:

The star named Kolob, and it’s called a star, I know that there are some websites that say the Mormons are crazy they think God lives on a planet called Kolob. The passage never says it’s a planet and never says God lives there either; it says it’s closest to where he lives. Anyway the star named Kolob is so-called “because it is near unto me” (Abr. 3:3) or near “the residence” (Fac. 2, Fig. 1) or “throne of God” (Abr. 3:9). Facsimile 2, Fig. 1 describes it as “nearest to the celestial.” This explanation is attractive because it creates a wordplay in the Book of Abraham; a feature known from the underlying Hebrew of both the Old Testament and the Book of Mormon. The wordplay being between “near” and “Kolob” because in fact the word for Kolob can mean near; there are several possibilities to explain and I’m going to talk about those now.

Janne Sjodahl was the first to compare the name with the Arabic qalb “core, marrow, heart, intelligence”, however because ‘l’ and ‘r’ often interchange in Semitic languages, one should also note Arabic QRB “proximity, near, midst” which is cognate to Hebrew qārōb “near” or “close.” Robert F. Smith prefers the latter and notes that it appears in the sense of “near one” as a title of God in Psalm 119:151 where it parallels the word qedem which means the “primeval one” or the “ancient one” (that’s in verse 152). Smith notes that the cognate Ugaritic qurb often refers to the dwelling place of El, the chief God, in the Canaanite pantheon in the expression “midst of the source of the two deeps” where the word rendered “midst” is in fact this same word qurb meaning “near”. Another possible Hebrew etymology is the Hebrew KLB “dog” originally pronounced kalb just as it is in Arabic. This is used to denote the star Regulus in Arabic while the Syriac, which is also kalb denotes the star Sirius, the brightest star in the heavens. There’s a wonderful article that Dan Peterson, and John Gee, and Matt Roper (I think), were the three who (if I left something off that you can fill it in later) but they wrote a really nice article on Kolob and its place in the sky and what it meant for Abraham.4 In Arabic, this term KLB “dog” also denotes the constellation of Canis Major which is Latin meaning “Great Dog”, we call it the Big Dipper but that’s not what is was called anciently, as the brightest star in the constellation of the Big Dipper, Sirius is called Alpha Canis Majoris which is “number one big dog” or top dog I guess. Another name for the star is Canicula, a Latin word for ‘Little Dog’. Akkadian sources call Sirius (inaudible) the “dog of the sun”. In ancient Egypt the Nile began to rise at the helical rising of Sirius, that is when it came up just before the sun and bringing the annual torrent of Nile water laden with rich volcanic soil from the south and depositing it on the cultivated land. I should mention by the way you notice how the one has a ‘q’ the other has a ‘k’? That’s very important, at least in Arabic, it’s not as important in Hebrew but I always try to get my Hebrew students to pronounce the two differently. In Israel they pronounce the two ‘k’ just that- it’s just like a regular ‘k’ in English. But in ancient times they were pronounced quite differently. One is pronounced way in the back of the throat, the other is pronounced farther up and in Arabic they make a big distinction and my reasoning with my students was, if you don’t make the distinction and you speak in Arabic and you want to tell a girl, “I love you with all of my heart” which is the word that’s coming up next, you don’t want to end up saying “I love you with all of my dog.” (Laughter) I think that struck a note with most of them.

So, this is the other one I want to have QLB which is “heart” in Arabic. There are some Egyptian equivalents to that, I didn’t put them up here. There’s a couple of cognates that are related directly to that. In the Sumerian text known as the Descent of Inanna, one of the more ancient texts from the Middle East, the goddess Inana goes down into the Underworld to free her husband Dumuzi who is the god who brings rain during the season of rain, and on the way back to heaven she stops at a place called Kulab which is designated as a tree of some sort. We don’t know why this happens there but there Dumuzi gets to sit on his throne and puts on his royal apparel which he has not been wearing while he’s been in prison.

signifying the first creation

Hugh Nibley:

Figure one is the God Amun. As [non-LDS Egyptologist] Peter L. Renouf saw, "the great God, Lord of Heaven, the giver of light, lighting up the Heavens and earth with his rays . . . to give life to the universe."[1].. . .The staff held by figure 1, Amun, is a combination of the djed-column, signifying abiding firmness and stability, the was-scepter of power and authority, and he ankh-staff of life --the three things on which all certainty depends. BU before all else we are dealing with creation and birth. So it is enlightening to note that the Prophet Josep begins his explanation of this figure as "the first creation, nearest to the celestial, or the residence of God. First in government, te last pertaining to measurement of time," etc. It is not the celestial residence, but it is near to it, as the center of one great system, the large system known to Abraham, and though he is aware of the existence of worlds without number, he sees only a particular segment. Indeed, Moses was sharply rebuked when he asked to see it all: "Worlds without number have I created . . . for mine own purpose; . . . here is wisdom and it remaineth in me" (Moses 1:33,31). Moses is informed that he has all that he can handle in his own earthly mission and meekly apologizes, "Be merciful unto they servant, O God, and tell me concerning this earth, . . . and then they servant will be content" (Moses 1:36). The most sublime aspect of Amun is the way he brings all things together in one, just as science today looks for the Grand Unifying Theory (GUT). That is what Amun gives us and we should bear in mind that all the owners of hypocephali were priests and priestesses of Amun-RE, along with their associates. Abraham, viewing the tarry heavens, fund that he "could not see the end thereof" (Abraham 3:12); while Moses, who is given "only an account of this earth," is assured that worlds that now stand are "innumerable. . . unto man; but all things are numbered unto me, for they are mine and I know them (Moses 1:35). As the doctrine of Min-Amun-RE, etc. proclaims, all the universe is full of life, sustained and rejuvenated in and by the One at the Center.[2]

...one day to a cubit...

Interpreter: A Journal of Mormon Scripture, "One Day to a Cubit"

Hollis R. Johnson,  Interpreter: A Journal of Mormon Scripture, (2013)
An investigation of ancient astronomy shows that a cubit was used not only as the metric of length (elbow to fingertip) but also as a metric of angle in the sky. That suggested a new interpretation that fits naturally: the brightest celestial object—the sun—moves eastward around the sky, relative to the stars, during the course of a year, by one cubit per day!.

Click here to view the complete article

One day in Kolob is equal to a thousand years according to the measurement of this earth

Hugh Nibley:

Another statement of time--"one day in Kolob is equal to a thousand years" (Fac. 2, fig. 1)--demonstrates different times in different systems. That is the great year of the ancients. They worked out all sourts of cycles. The whole Kolob concept suggests that "archaic order: which today is being retrieved through the serious study of the oldest myths, monuments, and idols of the race. "As we follow the clues--stars, numbers," write de Santillana and von Dechend, "a huge framework of connections is revelaed at many levels. One is inside an echoing manifold, where everything responds and everything has a place and a time assigned to it. This is a true edieice. . . a World-Image that first the many levels, nd al of it kept in order by strict measure."[3]

The concept of unity and identity so prominent in the Egyptian text is well expressed in the Pearl of Great Price: "And behold, all things have their likeness, and all things which are in the heavens above and things which are of earth, and things which are in the earth, and things which are under the earth, both above and beneath: all things bear record of me" (Moses 6:63). Such is the "echoing manifold," with Kolob in control

In this huge framework of connections, the unit of measurement is, according to de Santillana and von Dechend, "always some form of time."[4] And it is the same in the Prophet's explanation of the multileveled "firmament of the heavens" which "answers to the measurement of time"--that is,of the revolutions or orbits of the heavenly bodies.[5]

….this earth which is called by the Egyptians Jah-oh-eh.

Hugh Nibley:

The Lord used this earth as the basis in the explanation of his creations to both Abraham and Moses (Abraham 3:4-7,9; Moses 1:35-36), "according to the measurement of the earth which is called by the Egyptians Jah-oh-eh" (Fac. 2, figs. 1,4, explanation). This, of course, suggests Jaoel, the angel who visits Abraham in the Apocalypse of Abraham who is easily identified by George H. Box as Jehovah[6]

What is that mysterious name, Jehovah, and its form? [. . .] The form we all know in common use, Jehovah or Yahweh, is held by the Jewish scholars to be "only meant for the masses" and not the true or real Tetragrammaton at al.[7] [. . .]

"The original letters of the Tetragrammaton," Phineas Mordell concludes, "were [Hebrew word] instead of [Hebrew word],"[8] which corresponds to Joseph Smith's j-a-o-e (yod, ayin, waw, aleph)[9]

the key of power (figure 2)

The Hebrew word for key (miptah), literally means "opener," while the Egyptian name of the god who bears this staff is Wp-w3.wt (Wepawet) = Opener of the Ways.[10] As Hugh Nibley has expressed :

The Egyptian is constantly concerned with being checked or blocked (h.sf) in his career. Only real power, the power of the key, can overcome his determined opponents. It shall become apparent that the key plays a major role both in the hypocephalus and in the Prophet's interpretation of it.[11]

Is made to represent God, sitting upon his throne, clothed with power and authority; with a crown of eternal light upon his head (figure 3)

Hugh Nibley:

Joseph Smith's critics have pointed out that his explanation of figure 3 so far--the throne, the sun-crown--would be an easy guess. "Clothed with power," however, is a palpable hit; for the big was-scepter that the king holds stands for "dominion," according to Raymond Faulkner[12] and for "dominion, lordship," according to Alan H. Gardiner; [13]

Answers to the Hebrew word Raukeeyang, signifying expanse, or the firmament of the heavens; also a numerical figure, in Egyptian signifying one thousand

FIGURE 4 Regarding the "expanse, or firmament of the heavens" and its relationship to Sokar, the God depicted here:

Our figure 4 goes back to the earliest Egyptian iconography, found on an ivory tomb belonging to King Djet (serpen) from the First Dynasty; on it has been drawn "a boat beneath which two wings representing te sky are spread."[14] It is "the sun-sip on the wings of the sky, . . . the two outstretched wings above the earth, the sheltering wings of the sky-god, from which was later derived the idea of the hawk as the sky-god"[15]The inscription with the relief from Edfu adds: "the expanse [circumference] of the heavens is beneath his wings; . . . your body . . . is the sky which is adorned with its stars[16] The bird in the boat is sometimes exchanged for the sky-goddess Nut, whose outstretched wings are the symbol of protection, [17]their purpose being to enfold and embrace everything (fig. 30)...for Hans Bonnet the wings show that the woman is the bird "which is usually put in place of her." The best known Egyptian symbol of the sky, she controls not only the cycle of the stars but also that of the sun.[18][19]

Regarding the numerical figure, Hugh Nibley, citing non-LDS Egyptologist Erik Hornung, made the following argument:

So far so good for Smith; all that seems quite obvious, but what about the next statement: "Also a numerical figure in Egyptian signifying 1000"? Professional Egyptologists have protested to the author that there is nothing known to them to justify attributing the number 1000 to figure 4. Yet here, if ever, the Joseph Smith explanation is right on target. The woman Nu, the sky-goddess of the outspread wings, has a peculiar epithet, and it is the same name as that given to the ship in figure 4, which means literally "a Thousand Are Her Souls," or "The One with a Thousand Souls,"[20] The Thousand Souls are stars, and she is so called because the stars are herchildren; a Pyramid Text says, "You (Nut) have taken to yourself ever god who has his own ship ([egyptian script] hb3) and have instructed them in the starry sky ([egyptian script] h3-b3=s) so that they will not depart from you as stars. Do not let NN be moved far from you in your name of 'Heaven' ([Egyptian script] hr.t) And this takes us to Abraham. Not only was he asked to count the stars as a metaphorical measure of his progeny, but he meets us in Genesis 15:5 as both an observer ([Hebrew script] habbet) and counter ([Hebrew script] li-spor) of the stars. We also see him, according to Facsimile 3, "reasoning upon the principles of Astronomy, in the king's court" (Fac. 3, fig 1, explanation). Reasoning and counting are te same word in the famous stele of a great princess, a daughter of Psameticus II, which reads, "Behold ye Khabasu of Heliopolis . . . the God is born . .v. one who can take the helm. Osiris Anchnesneferibre (the princess) will reckon (calculate, reason, w3d) with you concerning the secret which is in the Great Hall (w3s.t, of the palace) of the gods and will take along Osiris in his Ship of a Thousand, even with the two heads, so that by it he can mount to heaven and to the counterheaven."[21] This is our figure 4. Even more impressive is the way the Joseph Smith explanation seems to parrot everything the Worterbuch says about the Khabasu. According to the Worterbuch, h3-b3. s means: "Literally, 'a thousand fold is her [the goddess of heaven] souls,' as a collective designation for the host of stars, the stars."[22][23]

...answering to the measuring of the time...

Hugh Nibley:

The third most significant thing about figure 4, according to Joseph Smith, is its office in "answering to the measure of time," namely by the cycles and revolutions of the heavens. Since all these figures mark both the completion and initiation of various life cycles, time is of the essence and the figure of the Sokar-ship is the most important agent of coordination. It was at the sed-festival or jubilee that the bird was borne forth in procession on his ship. It is specifically figure 4 that coordinates the funereal with the astral them by virtue by its "calendrical" significance--that is, as the primordial measurement of time.[24][25]

...and is said by the Egyptians to represent the Sun (Fig 5)

Hugh Nibley:

But Joseph Smith tells us that figure 5 is the Sun. No problem. From being the mother of the Sun with the new born disk rising between her horns--a design in evidence in prehistoric times--it was an easy step to becoming the Sun itself[26]. As early as the Old Kingdom, the cow appears "as the female equivalent of Re."[27] At Opet in Luxor, where the Mother-Cow was worshiped as Hathor of Coptus, she was called the Sun of the Two Worlds--that is, both of Horus the son of Osiris and Amun-Re the Sun of Thebes[28]Her horns, flanked by the same two feathers that our figure 2 wears as the Sun at the zenith, showing that the cow resurrects the Sun as well as the human race. [29]

Kokaubeam (Fig 5)

John Tvedtnes:

Abraham 3:13 defines Kokob as “star” and Kokaubeam as “stars, or all the great lights, which were in the firmament of heaven.” When first published in the Times & Seasons, the passage read “Kolob” in error. They’d written Kolob so many times that the typesetter thought that’s what belonged here. The manuscripts however have Kokob corresponding to the Hebrew word that we have written here kōkāb and denotes in the one singular and the other in the plural. The plural is also found two other times in the Book of Abraham and it’s called in Facsimile 2, Fig. 5 and also Abraham 3:16 it lists Kokaubeam or kōkābīm in Hebrew. The correct pronunciation (inaudible) means “the” so it’s “the stars.” Lundquist noted that one of the deities in Deimel’s list was Kakob meaning “star”. Similar, Kakkab is the name of one of the god’s mentioned in the Ebla records discovered in northwestern Syria.

Earth in its four quarters (Fig 6)

Joseph correctly identified the four canopic jars in figure 6 as the earth in its four quarters. Non-LDS Egyptologist E.A. Wallis Budge has translated it in the same way. As he wrote:

The four children of Horus played a very important role in the funeral works of the early dynasties; they originally represented the four supports of heaven, but very soon each was regarded as the god of one of the four quarters of the earth, and also of that quarter of the heavens which was above it.[30]

LDS Scholars have also cited Maarten Raven, a non-LDS Egyptologist whose work also supports Joseph's explanation. [31]

Represents god sitting upon his throne, revealing through the heavens the grand Key-words of the Priesthood; as, also, the sign of the Holy Ghost unto Abraham, in the form of a dove (Figure 7)

The epithet of Min is "He of the upraised hand," and his identification is the flail and the erect phallus with which he appears in the oldest known Egyptian statue--he is always in human form[32] They are also signs of procreation. Min was intimately related to the god Amun, and Amun was probably derived from him.[33]. "Amun is the other self of Min; . . . his high priest was called 'The Opener of the Gates of Heaven,' while the high priest of Min at Letopolis was the 'Opener of the Mouth upon the Earth,' i.e., the mortals here on earth upon whom the heavenly power was conferred."[34] The Greeks and Romans associated him with Pan and Priapus [35] Min is the "Creator god who made the heaven and brought forth the gods, who made the earth and created men . . . and who keeps all things alive."[36]

Birds are frequently used as messengers in Egyptian inscriptions. See under Facsimile 1 for our discussion of it.

The wedjat eye that is between the birds hands and being passed to Min is representative of power. Hugh Nibley:

But most especially the eye belongs to the king and to kingship. Osiris gets the eye back after Horus has rescued it for him; he needs it to rule the kingdom below as Horus and Re need it to rule on earth and in haven.[37] The eye was, according to Griffiths, the Eye of Horus[38]

The eye fills the king completely;[39] it purifies him[40] it gives him special knowledge, visionary power. [41] It exalts the king and places him at the head of the Greater and Lesser Councils.[42] [. . .] In the Pyramid Texts the fusion of his king's nature with God of heaven takes place when his statue is crowned with the moon-eye of Upper Egypt and the sun-eye of Lower Egypt, and then is anointed, passing throuhg the middle chamber of stars into a room in which heaven was scenically depicted."[43] It is the ultimate supreme power over men and gods [44] Its power is especially protective, encircling the king[45] [. . .] With all its power, the wedjat is an important element in the ordinances. The functions of the wedjat-eye are combined in the anointing oil, both as the oil of heating that revives the smitten hero[46] and as the very precious oil used in the ordinances of anointing the brow or breast, specifically to bestow authority ad power.[47] It is the anointing which transforms the nature of the individual.[48] All this is in the wedjat eye itself, which by anointing imparts soul and body, restoration, joy, and thankfulness with its obligation of obedience.[49]

In other ordinances it is the food of the sacrament, the wedjat-eye is the power of the bread which fills, revives, and strengthens the king.[50] It is the strength given by sacramental food.[51] [. . .]

By now it should be clear to any Latter-day Saint reader that the elusive wedjat-eye, intimately familar yet strangely elusive, is a symbol of that equally common all-but-indefinable power called the priesthood.

Joseph's explanation fits nicely with these symbols.

Contains writings that cannot be revealed unto the world; but is to be had in the Holy Temple of God; Ought not to be revealed at the present time; Also; Also. If the world can find out these numbers, so let it be. Amen (Figures 8-11)

Hugh Nibley:

Joseph Smith explained that the three lines of text, figures 8-11, contain "writings that cannot be revealed unto the world; but is to be had in the Holy Temple of God" and "ought not to be revealed at the present time." These lines contain a prayer to Osiris, the god of the dead, to grant life to the owner of this hypocephalus. A common theme of all Egyptian funerary literature is the resurrection of the dead and their glorification and deification in the afterlife, which is certainly a central element of our own temple ceremony.

There follows a transcription, transliteration, and translation of figures 8-11. (11)[Series of Egyptian hieroglyphs from figure 11] (10) [Series of Egyptian hieroglyphs from figure 10] (9) [Series of Egyptian hieroglyps from figure 9] (8)[Series of Egyptian hieroglyphs from figure 8] (11) I ntr sdr. m sp (10) tpy, ntr '3 nb p.t, t3, (9) dw3.t, mw=f '3, (8) d3 'nh b3 Wsir Ssq. (11) O God of the Sleeping Ones[52] from the time of (10) the creation.[53] O Mighty God, Lord of heaven and earth, (9) of the hereafter, and of his great waters,[54] (8) may the soul of Osiris[55]Shishaq[56] be granted life.

As stated above, this is a prayer or plea of Shishaq, the ownder of the hypocephalus, to Osiris, the god of the dead, who is the Lord of all things, to grant him eternal life.[57]

Figures.....19, 20, and 21 will be given in in the own due time of the Lord

Hugh Nibley:

The text found in figures 19-21 are as follows: (21)[Egyptian hieroglyphs] (20)[Egyptian hieroglyphs] (19)[Egyptian hieroglyphs]

(21)iw wnn=k (20) m ntr pf (19) dd.wy.

(21) You shall ever be (20) as that God, (19) the Busirian.[58]

This continues the overall theme of the hypocephalus, and indeed Egyptian funerary literature in general. The deceased is promised that he will be like Osiris--he will be resurrected and live eternally as a god.[59]

Abraham and the Temple Endowment (Themes of Facisimile 2)

Hugh Nibley likened the temple endowment to the version of the Book of Breathings Made by Isis contained in the Joseph Smith papyri. The document is organized as follows:

  • The purpose of the document is given.
  • The individual is pronounced clean and enters the hall of justice
  • The individual enters the underworld with the setting sun and is divinized
  • The individual is resurrected and given personal permission to live among the gods.
  • The individual is assured of a fully functioning body and proceeds on the way of God.
  • The individual is given a name and allowed to partake of the offerings.
  • The gods escort the individual to various sacred places.
  • Various gods protect the individual from sickness
  • The individual is allowed to fellowship with the Gods
  • The individual is inducted into a chapel in the temple to celebrate a festival.
  • The individual will live by the fellowship permit he has received, and his enemies will no longer exist.
  • The gods tell the individual that because he is among the followers of god, his soul will live forever
  • The gods command that all doors be open to the individual
  • An offering formula is recited
  • Different gods are addressed, and the individual states that he is free from various sins. "He gave bread to te hungry, water to the thirsty, and clothing to the naked.
  • The individual is commanded to enter the next life with all the privileges of the gods.
  • Instructions for the deposition of the document are given [60]

Notes

  1. Renouf "Two-sided Hypocephalus," 144-46, plate 2
  2. Nibley, Hugh "One Eternal Round" pp. 236, 238; Neal A. Maxwell Institute for Religious Scholarship: Provo, UT. Edited by Michael Rhodes (2010) PRINT.
  3. De Santilana and von Decehdn, Hamlet's Mill, 8
  4. Ibid.
  5. Nibley "One Eternal Round" p. 256
  6. George H. Box, ed. and trans., The Apocalypse of Abraham (New York: Macmillan, 1918), 16; but this angel was also called Metatron or Enoch; see Hugh Nibley, Abraham in Egypt, 2nd ed., CWHN 14 ( Salt Lake City: Deseret Book and FARMS, 2000), 44, fig 4.
  7. Eliyahu Rosh-Pinnah, "The Sefer Yetzirah and the Original Tetragrammaton," JQR 57 (1967): 223.
  8. Phineas Mordell, "The Origin of Letters and Numerals According to the Sefer Yezirah," JGR 2 (1912): 567.
  9. Nibley "One Eternal Round" 256-258
  10. Nibley "One Eternal Round" pg. 268
  11. Nibley "One Eternal Round" pg. 268
  12. Raymond O. Faulkner, A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1962), 54.
  13. Alan H. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar, 3rd ed. rev. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1957), 559.
  14. Rudolf Anthes, "Egyptian Theology in the Third Millennium B.C.," JNES 18 (1959): 171; a full-scale photo is in Reginald Engelbach, "An Alleged Winged Sun-disck of the First Dynasty," ZAS 65 (1930): 115-16, plate opposite page 114; see Hugh Nibley, "A Pioneer Mother," in Abraham in Egypt, CWHN 14:509, fig. 86.
  15. Hermann Kees, Der Gotterglaube im alten Agypten (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1941) 42-43
  16. Notice the reference to stars here. This ties with Abraham and his covenant seed.
  17. Alexandre Piankoff, the Shrines of Tut-Ankh-Amon (New York: Pantheon Books, 1955), 96-98
  18. PT 434 (SS784-85)
  19. Nibley "One Eternal Round" pg. 279-81
  20. Erik Hornung, Tal der Konige, 135; see Nibley, Abraham in Egypt, CWHN 14:65, fig. 12
  21. Constantin E. Sander-Hansen, Die relgiosen Texte auf dem Sarg der Anchenesferibre (Cop enhagen: Levin and Munksgaard, 1937), 36-37.
  22. Wb 3:230, 1.
  23. Nibley "One Eternal Round" pg. 282-83
  24. Philippe Derchain, "La peche de l'oreil et les mysteres d'Osiris a Dendara," RdE (1963): 13-14
  25. Nibley "One Eternal Round" pg. 283"
  26. Bonnet, Reallexikon der agyptischen Religionsgeschichte, 281.
  27. Ibid., 280
  28. Maxence de Rochemonteix, "Le temple d'Apte ou est engendre l'Osiris thebain," in Oeuvres diverses, ed. Gaston Maspero, BE 3 (Paris:Leroux, 1894),258.
  29. Gustave Jequier, Considerations sur les religions egyptiennes (Neuchatel: Baconniere, 1946),219.
  30. E.A. Wallis Budge, Egyptian Magic (New Hyde Park, NY: University Books, 1958),90-91
  31. Maarten J. Raven, “Egyptian Concepts of the Orientation of the Human Body,” in Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Egyptologists (2007), 2:1569–70.
  32. Bonnet, Reallexikon der agyptischen Religionsgeschichte, 461.
  33. Gerald A. Wainwright, "The Emblem of Min," JEA 17 (1931): 185
  34. Wainwright, Emblem of Min," 170.
  35. Ibid., 464.
  36. Ibid., 463
  37. PT 356 (579)
  38. Griffiths, "Remarks on the Mythology of the Eyes of Horus," 191.
  39. PT 198 (114)
  40. PT 258 (308); 259 (312).
  41. PT 638 (1805)
  42. PT 468(901); 523 (1231).
  43. Spiegel "Das Auferstehungritual der Unaspyramide," 389-93; PT 301 (451); see Nibley, Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri, CWHN 16:119, fig. 30.
  44. PT 200-221 (195)
  45. PT 200-221 (195)
  46. PT 74-76 (51)
  47. PT 621 (1754); 637 (1803); 639 (1809)
  48. PT 72-73 (50); 74-76 (51); 77 (52)
  49. PT 687 (2074-77)
  50. PT 199 (115)
  51. PT186-90 (107-8) and PT 197 (113)
  52. I.e., the dead; see Wb 4:392, 9.
  53. Literally "the first time." See Wb 3:438, 1.
  54. The primeval ocean from which the sun rose on the day of creation and which surrounds the earth. See Henri Frankfort, Ancient Egyptian Religion (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1961),114. A similar phrase is found in one of the Demotic magical papyri, r-wn n=y p3 t3 r-wn n=y t3 tw3.t r-wn n=y p3 nwn, "Open the earth for me, open the netherworld for me, open the primeval waters for me." F. Llewellyn Griffith and Herbert Thompson, The Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden (London: Grevel, 1905), line I 5.
  55. On the identification of the dead with Osiris, see Frankfort, Ancient Egyptian Religion, 103-5
  56. Shishaq or Sheshonq was the name of several Egyptian pharaohs of the Twenty-first Dynasty, the Libyan Dynasty.
  57. Nibley "One Eternal Round" pg. 327
  58. dd.wy is a disbe adjective formation of Dd.w, Busiris, a cult center of Osiris in the Dleta, and thus used as an epithet of Osiris. Cf. Wb 5:630, 7.
  59. Nibley "One Eternal Round" pg. 345
  60. Nibley, Hugh The Message of the Joseph Smith Papyri': An Egyptian Endowment. 2d ed. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book; Provo, Utah: FARMS, 2002