Question: Did Joseph Smith plagiarize John Walker's "Key to Greek, Latin, and Scripture Proper Names"?

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Question: Did Joseph Smith plagiarize John Walker’s "Key to Greek, Latin, and Scripture Proper Names"?

There is no evidence that Joseph saw this work.

As with most Book of Mormon plagiarism accusations, there is no evidence that Joseph saw this dictionary nor even knew of it. It is unlikely that he turned to such specific sections of the dictionary to rob names from it, even less likely that he was able to employ the names in ways that correspond to the ancient world. This will be discussed in our analysis.

The critic who proposes this theory uses a flawed methodology for the parallels.

Rick Grunder in his book attempts to show names that Joseph may have used when translating the Book of Mormon and restoring the Books of Moses by citing John Walker’s “A Key to Greek, Latin, and Scripture Proper Names”. Grunder cites his methodology as follows:

I have selected the following list of names and terms which I find similar to, resonant with, or identical to Book of Mormon names. On page 79 alone appear not only the three eldest male members of the leading Book of Mormon family (Lehi, ‘Lah’man’ and Lemuel), but the Book’s first villain as well (Laban), plus two notable Master Mahan/secret combination protagonists in Joseph Smith’s 1830 Book of Moses (chapter 5): Lamech and Irad. Walker’s Key also provides the unusual reference to the Apocryphal name Nephi, p. 81. Of additional interest is a pronunciation rule to which ‘Ne´ phi’ is here referenced, showing the same pronunciation that is used by Mormons today.

In preparing this list, I have excluded a number of the most famous biblical names shared or recalled by Book of Mormon people, as well as the names of exclusively biblical locations referred to in the Book of Mormon (primarily in 2 Nephi). Names which I place in LARGE & SMALL CAPITAL LETTERS, (not followed by comparison names in parentheses) are identical to names in the Book of Mormon. Names which I signal with an asterisk (*) occur in Walker’s Key with added prominence by appearing first or last in a page column.

Most of the names associated with the Book of Mormon are verbatim from the Old and New Testament.

Grunder lists 1-5 names from Walker’s work and then associates them with names in the Book of Mormon that he cites to the right of the last name in each list. It should first be noted that most of the names come from the Old and New Testament as Walker informs us. Some names match up perfectly between the Old and New Testament such as the name “Boaz.” It need not be surprising to find these names in the Book of Mormon as the Book of Mormon claims to be the record of an Israelite people. We might expect to find names that come from the Old Testament—especially those that predate the Lehites departure from Jerusalem.

Some names are not found in the Old or New Testament because they are simply other Latin or Greek names

Walker also tells us in the title that we will find Latin and Greek Names in the dictionary, yet those that we do find do not correlate well with the Book of Mormon. These will be pointed out below.

There are two positions that we might take when viewing these names:

  1. As critics, we might assume that Joseph simply lifted the names that match verbatim from these names to fit into the Book of Mormon narrative, twisted the names that don’t correlate perfectly, and obtained the other names from other outside sources.
  2. As believers, that Joseph translated authentic names from an ancient record.

From this analysis, the second position seems more likely. Like the pendant names mentioned before, some names hold remarkable ancient parallels or follow very specific and fascinating patterns. These will be described below when a name does not come from either the Old or New Testament. For names that Grunder associates with Jaredite names, we cannot offer any such study on the names seeing that the language of the Jaredites is not known. Some names have been studied and offer some fascinating insights such as the name “Deseret” in Ether 2:3. For most others, we cannot offer any such study. For those name that are exact matches that occur in the Old or New Testament, we will likewise offer no such study as they are obviously Semitic names. The studies on these names come from the Book of Mormon Onomasticon project done by Brigham Young University and the FairMormon Book of Mormon Evidence page. Like many other Semitic and Egyptian evidence in the Book of Mormon, they are especially fascinating considering that, according to documented evidence, Joseph did not undertake any academic study of the any language until March 1835. He did not study Hebrew until 1836 under Joshua Seixas nor did he attempt to perform any study of the Egyptian language until after the completion of the Book of Abraham in 1842.

Nearly all of these names have authentic etymologies and were employed in the Book of Mormon in an authentic way. Some etymologies have still not been offered for a select few. We encourage the reader to visit the following pages to research these names and for positive evidence against this claim:

p. [71]:

  • A-bin´ a-dab (cf. Abinadi)—The name "Abinadab" occurs 11 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Abinadi" may be found here.
    • 2 Samuel 6:3
    • 1 Samuel 16:8
    • 1 Chronicles 8:33
    • 1 Samuel 7:1
    • 1 Samuel 17:13
  • A-bin´ o-am (cf. Abinadom)—The name "Abinoam" occurs 4 times in the Old Testament (Book of Judges).
    • Judges 4:12
    • Judges 5:1
    • Judges 5:12
    • Judges 4:6
  • A-bish´ a-i (cf. Abish)—The name "Abishai" does not occur in the Bible. The name "Abish" is a great potential evidence for the Book of Mormon. See here for more information.
  • A´ chish (cf. Akish)—The name "Achish" occurs 18 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Akish" may be found here.
    • 1 Samuel 28:2
    • 1 Samuel 21:10
    • 1 Samuel 21:12
    • 1 Samuel 21:14
    • 1 Samuel 27:2
    • 1 Samuel 27:6
    • 1 Samuel 27:9
    • 1 Samuel 27:12
    • 1 Samuel 29:2
    • 1 Samuel 28:1
    • 1 Samuel 21:11
    • 1 Samuel 27:3
    • 1 Samuel 27:5
    • 1 Samuel 27:10
    • 1 Samuel 29:8
    • 1 Samuel 29:9
    • 1 Kings 2:39
    • 1 Samuel 29:3

p. 72:

  • Æ´ nos (cf. Enos)—the name “Enos” can be found 6 times within the Old Testament and 1 time in the New Testament. The use of the name "Enos" is a great potential evidence for the historical authenticity of the Book of Mormon. More information on that may be found here.
    • Genesis 4:26
    • Genesis 5: 6
    • Genesis 5:7
    • Genesis 5:9
    • Genesis 5:10
    • Genesis 5:11
    • Luke 3:38
  • A´ HAZ – the name “Ahaz” occurs 41 times in the Old Testament. It occurs only in the Isaiah portions of the Book of Mormon
    • 2 Kings 15: 38
    • 2 Kings 16: 1,2,5,7,8,10,11 (twice), 15,16,17,19,20
    • 2 Kings 17:1
    • 2 Kings 18:1
    • 2 Kings 20:11
    • 2 Kings 23: 12
    • 1 Chronicles 3:13
    • 1 Chronicles 8: 35, 36
    • 1 Chronicles 9:41, 42,
    • 2 Chronicles 27:9
    • 2 Chronicles 28: 1, 16, 19, 21, 22, 24, 27
    • 2 Chronicles 29:19
    • Isaiah 1:1
    • Isaiah 7:1, 3, 10, 12
    • Isaiah 14:28
  • Al´ mon Dib-la-tha´ im [and,] – the name “Almon- diblathaim” occurs 2 in the Old Testament
    • Numbers 33: 46,47
  • Al´ na-than, - the name “Alnathan” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament
  • Al´ pha, - the name “Alpha” occurs 4 times in the New Testament. This name is always used to describe the Savior in the New Testament and the Book of Mormon e.g. Alpha and Omega
    • Revelation 1: 8, 11
    • Revealtion 21: 6
    • Revelation 22:13
  • A´ mal, - the name “Amal” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament
    • 1 Chronicles 7:35
  • A-mal´ da (cf. Alma) – the name Amalda does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament. The name "Alma" is a great potential evidence for the authenticity of the Book of Mormon. See here for more information regarding it.
  • Am´ a-lek (cf. Amaleki) – the name “Amalek” can be found 25 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Amaleki" may be found here.
    • Genesis 36: 12, 16,
    • Exodus 17: 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 16
    • Numbers 24: 20 (twice)
    • Deuteronomy 25: 17, 19
    • Judges 3: 13
    • Judges 5:14
    • 1 Samuel 15: 2, 3, 5, 20
    • 1 Samuel 28: 18
    • 2 Samuel 8: 12
    • 1 Chronicles 1: 36
    • 1 Chronicles 18:11
    • Psalm 83:7
  • AM´ A-LEK-ITES – the tribal name “Amalikite[s]” can be found 29 times in the Old Testament.
    • Genesis 14:7
    • Numbers 13:29; 14:25, 43, 45
    • Judges 6:3, 33; 7:12; 10:12; 12:15
    • 1 Samuel 14:48; 27:8
    • 2 Samuel 1: 1,8, 13,
    • 1 Chronicles 4: 43
  • A-MIN´ A-DAB – the name “Aminadab” occurs 3 times in the New Testament while recounting the Davidic genealogy. He is 33 generations separated from Jesus. The name "Amminadab" occurs 9 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Aminadab" may be found here.
    • Exodus 6:23
    • Numbers 1:7
    • Numbers 2: 3
    • Numbers 7:12
    • Numbers 10:14
    • Ruth 4:20
    • 1 Chronicles 2:10 (twice)
    • 1 Chronicles 6:22
    • 1 Chronicles 15:10
    • Matthew 1: 4 (twice)
    • Luke 3:33
  • AM´ MON – the name “Ammon” occurs 95 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Ammon" may be found here.
    • Genesis 19:38
    • Numbers 21: 24 (twice)
    • Deuteronomy 2: 19 (twice), 37; 3:11, 16
    • Joshua 12: 2; 13:10, 25
    • Judges 3: 13; 10: 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 17, 18; 11: 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 36,
    • 1 Samuel 12:12; 14: 47
    • 2 Samuel 8: 12; 10: 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10, 11, 14 (twice), 19; 11:1; 12: 9, 26, 31; 17: 27
    • 1 Kings 11: 7, 33
    • 2 Kings 23: 13; 24: 2
    • 1 Chronicles 18: 11; 19: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 15, 19; 20: 1, 3;
    • 2 Chronicles 20: 1, 10, 22, 23; 27: 5 (twice)
    • Nehemiah 13: 23
    • Psalms 83: 7
    • Isaiah 11: 14
    • Jeremiah 9: 26; 25: 21; 49: 6
    • Daniel 11: 41
    • Amos 1: 13
    • Zephaniah 2: 8, 9
  • AM´ MON-ITES – the tribal name “Ammonite[s]” occurs 35 times in the Old Testament. See under "Ammon" for links to additional information.
    • Deuteronomy 2:20
    • Deuteronomy 23: 3
    • 1 Samuel 11: 1, 2, 11
    • 2 Samuel 23: 37
    • 1 Kings 11: 1, 5
    • 1 Chronicles 11:39
    • 2 Chronicles 20:1
  • Am´ non (cf. Amnor) – the name “Amnon” occurs 28 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Amnor" may be found here.
    • 2 Samuel 3: 2; 13: 1, 2 (twice), 3, 4, 6 (twice), 7, 8, 9, 10 (twice), 15 (twice), 20, 22 (twice), 26, 27, 28 (twice), 29, 32, 33, 39
    • 1 Chronicles 3: 1; 4:20
  • Am´ o-rites (cf. Amoron) the tribal name “Amorite[s]” occurs 92 times in the Old Testament. For more information on the name "Amoron" see this link and the other links found there.
  • An-a-ni´ ah (cf. Ammonihah) – the name “Ananiah” can be found 2 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Ammonihah" may be found here.
    • Nehemiah 3: 23; 11: 32
  • An´ ti-och (cf. Antion) – the name “Antioch” occurs 19 times in the New Testament. More information on the name "Antion" may be found here.
    • Acts 6: 5; 11: 19,20, 22, 26, 27,; 13: 1, 14; 19, 21, 26; 15: 22, 23, 30, 35; 18: 22
    • Galatians 2: 11
    • 2 Timothy 3: 11
  • An-ti´ o-chus (cf. Antionum) – “Antiochus Epiphanes” is the name of a King of Syria who ruled between 175-164 B.C. at a time when Palestine was a Syrian province. His name does not occur in the Bible. More information on the name "Antionum" may be found here.
  • AN´ TI-PAS – the name “Antipas” occurs 1 time in the New Testament. Since this is a greek name and occurs after the arrival of the Mulekites (who may have retained greek names), this shouldn't be a concern. More information on greek names and their plausibility in the Book of Mormon may be found here. More information on the name "Antipas" from the Book of Mormon Onomasticon (and a plausible Semitic etymology) may be found here.
    • Revelation 2: 13
  • An to´ ni-a (cf. Antionah) – The name “Antonia” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament. The Castle Antonia was built in the stead of the temple at Jerusalem when taken by Herod under the Macabees. More information on the name "Antionah" may be found here.
  • Ar-che-la´ us (cf. Archeantus) – the name “Archelaus” occurs 1 time in the New Testament. More information on the name "Archeantus" may be found here.

p. 74:

  • BO´ AZ — the name "Boaz" occurs 24 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Boaz" may be found here.
    • Ruth 2:1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 11, 14, 15, 19, 23.
    • Ruth 3:2, 7
    • Ruth 4:1 (twice), 5, 8, 9, 13, 21 (twice).
    • 1 Kings 7:21
    • 1 Chronicles 2:11,12
    • 2 Chronicles 3:17

p. 75:

  • Che´ mosh (cf. Chemish) – the name “Chemosh” occurs 8 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Chemish" may be found here.
    • Numbers 21: 29
    • Judges 11: 24
    • 1 Kings 11: 7, 33
    • 2 Kings 23: 13,
    • Jeremiah 48: 7, 13, 46
  • Che´ sed [and,] - the name “Chesed” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament
    • Genesis 22: 22
  • Che´ sil, - the name “Chesil” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament.
    • Joshua 15: 30
  • Che´ sud, - the name “Chesud” does not occur in the Old or New Testament.
  • Che´ zib (cf. Shez) - the name “Chezib” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. The name “Shez” is a Jaredite name and no study of its etymology exists.
    • Genesis 38: 5
  • Con-o-ni´ ah (cf. Cumenihah) – the name “Cononiah” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament. See here for more information on the name "Cumenihah".
    • 2 Chronicles 31: 12,13

p. 76:

  • Em´ mer [and,] - the name “Emmer” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament
  • E´ mor (cf. Emer) – the name “Emor” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament. More information on the name "Emer" may be found here.
  • ES´ ROM – the name “Esrom” occurs 3 times in the New Testament. That name stems from the Old Testament "Hezron" which occurs 8 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Esron" and a plausible ancient etymology for it may be found here.
    • Matthew 1: 3 (twice)
    • Luke 3: 33
  • E´ tham (cf. Ethem) – the name Etham occurs 4 times in the Old Testament. The name “Ethem” is a Jaredite name. No study of its etymology exists.
    • Exodus 13: 20
    • Numbers 33: 6
  • E´ THER – the name “Ether” occurs 2 in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Ether" may be found here.
    • Joshua 15: 42; 19:7
  • E-ZI´ AS – the name “Ezias” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament. There is, however, more to the story. See here for more information regarding this name.
  • Ez´ ron (cf. Ezrom) – the name “Ezron” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament. More information on the name "Ezrom" may be found here.
  • Ga´ di (cf. Gad, Gadianton) – the name “Gadi” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Gad" may be found here. More information on the name "Gadianton" may be found here.
    • 2 Kings 15: 14, 17
  • Ga-ze´ ra [and,] – the name “Gazera” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament.
  • Gaz´ zam (cf. Gazelem) – the name “Gazzam” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Gazelem" may be found here.
    • Ezra 2: 48
    • Nehemiah 7: 51
  • Ger´ shon (cf. Jershon) – the name “Gershon” occurs 18 times in the Old Testament. The name "Jershon" is a great potential evidence for the authenticity of the Book of Mormon. See here for more information.
    • Genesis 46: 11
    • Exodus 6: 16, 17
    • Numbers 3: 17, 18, 21, 25; 4: 22, 28,38, 41; 7: 7; 10:17; 26: 57
    • Joshua 21: 6, 27
    • 1 Chronicles 6: 1; 23: 6
  • Gid-e-o´ ni (cf. Giddianhi) – the name “Gideoni” occurs 5 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Giddianhi" may be found here.
    • Numbers 1: 11; 2: 22; 7: 60, 65; 10:24
  • GIL´ E-AD – the name “Gilead” occurs 134 times in the Old Testament. References will not be listed for convenience. This is a Jaredite name and no study of an etymology exists. However, since this is listed so many times in the Old Testament and close to the time of the Jaredites (e.g. Genesis 31:21, 23) it is almost certain that this name could have been preserved with them.
  • GIL´ GAL – the name “Gilgal” occurs 42 times in the Old Testament. References will not be listed for convenience. This name could have also been preserved by the Jaredites. See here for more information.
  • GO-MOR´ RAH (cf. Cumorah, both sites of massive destruction of the wicked) – the name “Gomorrah” occurs 21 times in the Old Testament. The name "Cumorah" is a great potential evidence for the Book of Mormon. See here for more information.
  • Hag´ gith (cf. Hagoth) – the name “Haggith” occurs 5 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Hagoth" as a potential evidence for the Book of Mormon's authenticity may be found here.
    • 2 Samuel 3: 4
    • 1 Kings 1: 5; 2: 13
    • 1 Chronicles 3: 2
  • HE´ LAM – the name “Helam” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Helam" may be found here.
    • 2 Samuel 10:16
  • He´ man (cf. Helaman) – the name “Heman” occurs 17 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Helaman" may be found here.
  • Her´ mon-ites (cf. Hermounts) – the tribal name “Hermonite[s]” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Hermounts" may be found here.
    • Psalms 42: 6
  • Hesh´ bon [and,] – the name “Heshbon” occurs 38 times in the Old Testament. References will not be produced for convenience.
  • Hesh´ mon, - the name “Heshmon” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament
    • Joshua 15: 27
  • Heth´ lon (cf. Heshlon) – the name “Hethlon” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament. The name “Heshlon” is Jaredite however, an etymology has been proposed. More information on the name "Heshlon" may be found here.
    • Ezekiel 47: 15; 48: 1
  • [I´ RAD - see Moses 5 (p. 79; - the name “Irad” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament and in the same context as the Book of Moses.
    • Genesis 4: 18 (twice)
  • ISH´ MA-EL, - the name “Ishmael” occurs 53 times in the Old Testament. References will not be produced for convenience. More information on the name "Ishmael" may be found here.
  • ISH´ MA-EL-ITES [p. 79] – the tribal name “Ishmaelite[s]” occurs 3 times in the Old Testament. See under "Ishmael" for more information regarding this name.
    • Judges 8: 24
    • 1 Chronicles 27: 30
    • Psalms 83: 6

p. 78:

  • Ja´ kim (cf. Jacom) – the name “Jakim” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Jacom" may be found here.
    • 1 Chronicles 8: 19; 24: 12
  • Ja´ num (cf. Jeneum) – the name “Janum” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. The name “Jeneum” appears to be a scribal misspelling of the name “Joneum”. More information on the name “Joneum” may be found here.
    • Joshua 15: 53
  • JA´RED – the name “Jared” occurs 5 times in the Old Testament and 1 time in the New Testament. More information on the name "Jared" may be found here.
    • Genesis 5: 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20
    • Luke 3:37
  • Ja´ shen (cf. Jashon) – the name “Jashen” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Jashon" may be found here.
  • 2 Samuel 23: 32

p. 79:

  • Jo´ tham (cf. Jothan) – the name “Jotham” occurs 26 times in the Old Testament. This appears to be a spelling mistake on the part of Grunder since the name “Jothan” does not occur in the Book of Mormon. The name “Jotham” occurs once in the Book of Mormon during the portions of Isaiah that are quoted.
  • Kib´ roth Hat-ta´ a-vah (cf. Kib) – the name “Kibroth-hattaavah” occurs 15 times in the Old Testament. The name “Kib” is Jaredite. No etymology has been suggested.
  • KISH – the name “Kish” occurs 22 times in the Old Testament. More information may be found here regarding the name.
  • Ko´ rah [and,] – the name Korah occurs 38 times in the Old Testament. References will not be produced for convenience.
  • Ko´ rah-ites, - the tribal name “Korahite[s]” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament
    • 1 Chronicles 9: 19, 31
  • Ko´ rath-ites, - the tribal name “Korathite[s]” occurs 1 time in the Old Testamet
    • Numbers 26: 58
  • Kor´ hite, - the tribal name “Korhite[s]” occurs 4 times in the Old Testament
    • Exodus 6: 24
    • 1 Chronicles 12: 6; 26: 1
    • 2 Chronicles 20: 19
  • Kor´ hites, - see “Korhite”
  • Kor´ ites – the tribal name “Korite[s]” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament
  • Ko´ re (cf. Korihor, Corihor) – the name “Kore” occurs 4 times in the Old Testament. The name “Korihor” appears to be a Lehite adoption of the Jaredite name “Corihor”. More information may be found on the name "Korihor" at this link.
    • 1 Chronicles 9: 19; 26: 1, 19
    • 2 Chronicles 31:14
  • LA´ BAN – the name “Laban” occurs 60 times in the Old Testament. References will not be produced for convenience. More information on the name "Laban" may be found here.
  • La-cu´ nus (cf. Lachoneus) – the name “Lacunus” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament. For more information on the name "Lachoneus" see here.
  • Lah´ man (cf. Laman) – the name “Lahman” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament. More information on the name "Laman" may be found here.
  • [LA´ MECH - see Moses 5] – the name “Lamech” occurs 12 times in the Old Testament
    • Genesis 4: 18, 19, 23 (twice), 24; 5: 25, 26, 28, 30, 31
  • LE´ HI * - the name “Lehi” occurs 4 times in the Old Testament. This name was primarily known as a place name. Evidence for the name “Lehi” as a personal name has only surfaced in recent years. See here for more information].
    • Judges 15: 9, 14, 17 (“Rameth-lehi”), 19
  • LEM´ U-EL * - the name “Lemuel” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament. See here for more information regarding the name.
    • Proverbs 31: 1, 4
  • Lib´ nah (cf. Limnah) – the name “Libnah” occurs 18 times in the Old Testament. References will not be produced for convenience. More information on the name "Limnah" may be found here.
  • Lib´ ni [and,] – the name “Libni” occurs 5 times in the Old Testament
    • Exodus 6: 17
    • Numbers 3: 18
    • 1 Chronicles 6: 17
  • Lib´ nites, (cf. Lib) – the tribal name “Libnite[s]” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Lib" may be found here.
    • Numbers 3: 21; 26: 58

p. 80:

  • Ma´ ha-lah (cf. Mahah) – the name “Mahalah” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Mahah" be found here.
    • 1 Chronicles 7: 18
  • Ma´ ni (cf. Manti). According to the Anchor Bible Dictionary, Mani is a personal, Greek name: "MANI (PERSON) [Gk Mani]. The Gk reading in 1 Esr 9:30 fo the person the RSV harmonizes as Bani, based on the parallel text in Ezra 10:29. See BANI."[1] A copy of the Apocrypha was not owned by Joseph Smith until the Book of Mormon went to print. More information on the name "Manti" may be found here.
  • Me´ lech (cf. Melek) – the name “Melech” occurs 3 times in the Old Testament. It is combined with the name “Ebed” to form “Ebed-melech” 9 times in the Old Testament. The name "melek" is a strong potential evidence for the Book of Mormon. Information regarding it may be found here.
    • 2 Kings 23: 11
    • 1 Chronicles 8: 35; 9: 41
  • MID´ I-AN – the name “Midian” occurs 40 times in the Old Testament. References will not be produced for convenience. More information regarding the name may be found here.
  • Mo´ lech [and,] – the name “Molech” occurs 8 times in the Old Testament
    • Leviticus 18: 21; 20:2, 3, 4, 5
    • 1 Kings 11: 7
    • 2 Kings 23: 10
    • Jeremiah 32: 35
  • Mo ´ lek, - the name “Molek” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament
  • Mo´ loch, - the name “Moloch” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament and 1 time in the New Testament.
    • Amos 5: 26
    • Acts 7: 43
  • Mo ´ lok (cf. Mulek [italics in the original]) – the name Molok does not occur in the Old Testament or the New Testament. More information regarding the name "Mulek" may be found here.
  • Mo-ri´ ah (cf. Orihah, Mosiah) – the name “Moriah” occurs 2 in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Orihah" may be found here. More information regarding the name "Mosiah" may be found "Mosiah" may be found here.
  • Genesis 22: 2
  • 2 Chronicles 3: 1

p. 81:

  • Na´ ham (cf. Nahom) – the name “Naham” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. The name "Nahom" is a strong evidence for the Book of Mormon. More information regarding it may be found here.
    • 1 Chronicles 4: 19
  • Na´ hor (cf. Nehor) – the name “Nahor” occurs 17 times in the Old Testament. References will not be produced for convenience. More information regarding the name "Nehor" may be found here.
  • Na´ hum (cf. Nahom) – the name “Nahum” occurs 3 times in the Old Testament—all at the beginning of the Book of Nahum. The name "Nahom" is a strong evidence for the Book of Mormon. More information regarding it may be found here.
  • Ne´ ah (cf. Neas) – the name “Neah” occurs in the 1 in the Old Testament. More information regarding the plant name "Neas" may be found here.
    • Joshua 19: 13
  • Ne´ cho (designated a Book of Abraham mummy; see MP 49, Belknap) – the name “Necho” occurs 4 times in the Old Testament. It was the name of an Egyptian king.
    • 2 Chronicles 35: 20; 36:4
  • Ne´ hum (cf. Neum) – the name “Nehum” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Neum" may be found here.
    • Nehemiah 7: 7
  • NE´ PHI * the name “Nephi” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament. The name Nephi is a remarkable name in the Book of Mormon--a way that was unlikely for Joseph to have known about. See here for more information regarding it.
  • NIM´ RAH – the name “Nimrah” occurs 3 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name may be found here.
    • Numbers 32: 3, 36.
  • O MER * - the name “Omer” occurs 6 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name may be found here.
    • Exodus 16: 16, 18, 22, 32, 33, 36
  • Om´ ri (cf. Omni) – the name “Omri” occurs 18 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Omni" may be found here.
    • 1 Kings 16: 16, 17, 21, 22 (twice), 23, 25, 27, 28, 29 (twice), 30,
    • 2 Kings 8: 26
    • 1 Chronicles 7: 8; 9:4; 27: 18
    • 2 Chronicles 22: 2
    • Micah 6: 16

p. 82:

  • Rab-bo´ ni (cf. Rabbanah) – the name “Rabboni” occurs 1 time in the New Testament. More information regarding the name "Rabbanah" may be found here.
    • John 20: 16
  • Ra´ ma, or RA´ MAH – the name “Rama” occurs 1 time in the New Testament. The name “Ramah” occurs 36 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Ramah" may be found here.
    • Matthew 2:18
    • Joshua 18: 24; 19:29
    • Judges 4: 4; 19: 13
    • 1 Samuel 1: 19; 2: 11; 7: 17; 8: 4; 15: 34; 16: 13; 19: 22; 20:1; 22: 6; 25: 1; 28: 3
    • 1 Kings 15: 21
    • 2 Kings 8: 29
    • 2 Chronicles 16: 5; 22: 6
    • Ezra 2: 26
    • Nehemiah 7: 30; 11: 33
    • Isaiah 10: 29
    • Jeremiah 31: 15; 40:1
    • Hosea: 5: 8
  • Rib´ lah (cf. Riplah) – the name “Riblah” occurs 11 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Riplah" may be found here.
    • Numbers 34: 11
    • 2 Kings 23: 33; 25: 6, 20, 21
    • Jeremiah 39: 5, 6; 52: 9, 10, 26, 27
  • Sa´ mi (cf. Sam) – the name “Sami” does not occur in the Old or New Testament. More information regarding the name "Sam" may be found here.
  • Sar-a-i´ ah (cf. Sariah) – the name “Saraiah” does not occur in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Sariah" may be found here.

p. 83:

  • Se´ nir (cf. Senine) – the name “Senir” occurs 2 times in the Old or New Testament. More information regarding the monetary name "Senine" may be found here.
    • 1 Chronicles 5: 23
    • Ezekiel 27: 5
  • Sha´ lem [and,] – the name “Shalem” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament
    • Genesis 33: 18
  • She´ bam (cf. Sheum) – the name “Shebam” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Sheum" may be found here.
    • Numbers 32: 3
  • She-re´ zer (cf. Shazer, Sherrizah) – the name “Sherezer” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Shazer" may be found here. More information regarding the name "Sherrizah" may be found here.
    • Zechariah 7: 2
  • Shib´ bo-leth (cf. Shiblom) – the name “Shibboleth” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Shiblom" may be found here.
    • Judges 12: 6
  • Shim´ hi [and,] – the name “Shimhi” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament
    • 1 Chronicles 8: 21
  • Shi´ mi, - the name “Shimi” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament
    • Exodus 6: 17
  • Shim´ ites (cf. Shim) – the tribal name “Shimite[s]” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Shim" may be found here.
    • Numbers 3: 21
  • Shi´ za (cf. Shiz) – the name “Shiza” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. The name "Shiz" is a Jaredite name for which no etymology has been suggested.
    • 1 Chronicles 11: 42
  • Shu´ lam-ite (cf. Shule) – the tribal name “Shulamite[s]” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Shule" may be found here.
    • Song of Solomon 6: 13
  • Shu´ math-ites (cf. Shum) – the tribal name “Shumathite[s]” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Shum" may be found here.
    • 1 Chronicles 2: 53

p. 84:

  • Si´ ba (cf. Sebus) – the name “Siba” does not occur in the Old Testament or New Testament. More information regarding the name "Sebus" may be found here.
  • Sid´ dim (cf. Sidom) – the name “Siddim” occurs 3 times in the Old Testament
    • Genesis 14: 3, 8, 10
  • SI´ DON – the name “Sidon” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament and 12 times in the New Testament. More information regarding the name "Sidon" may be found here.
    • Genesis 10: 15, 19
    • Matthew 11: 21, 22; 15: 21
    • Mark 3: 8; 7: 24, 31
    • Luke 4: 26; 6: 17; 10: 13
    • Acts 12: 20; 27: 3
  • Sir´ i-on (cf. Siron) – the name “Sirion” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Siron" may be found here.
    • Deuteronomy 3: 9
    • Psalm 29: 6
  • [THUM´ MIM - in Abraham 3:1, 4, and later applied, with URIM, to Book of Mormon interpreters; see MP 414 (Stanford)] – the names “Urim” and “Thummim” occur 10 times in the Old Testament
    • Exodus 28: 30 (both)
    • Leviticus 8: 8 (both)
    • Deuteronomy 33: 8 (both)
    • Ezra 2: 63 (both)
    • Nehemiah 7: 65 (both)

p. 85:

  • Tu´ bal Cain (cf. Tubaloth) – the name “Tubal-cain” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Tubaloth" may be found here.
    • Genesis 4: 22 (twice)
  • [U´ RIM - see THUMMIM, above] – see “Thummim” above.
  • Zem-a-ra´ im [and,] - the name “Zemaraim” occurs 2 in the Old Testament
    • Joshua 18: 22
    • 2 Chronicles 13: 4
  • Zem´ a-rite, - the tribal name “Zemarite” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament
    • Genesis 10: 18
    • 1 Chronicles 1: 16
  • Ze-mi´ ra, - the name “Zemira” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament
  • Zeph-a-ni´ ah, - the name “Zephaniah” occurs 11 times in the Old Testament. Once as the title of the Book of Zephaniah.
    • 2 Kings 25: 16
    • 1 Chronicles 6: 36
    • Jeremiah 21: 1; 29: 25, 29; 37: 3; 52: 24
    • Zephaniah 1: 1; 6: 10
  • Zer-a-hi´ ah (cf. Zemnarihah) – the name “Zerahiah” occurs 5 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Zemnarihah" may be found here.
    • 1 Chronicles 6: 6 (twice), 51
    • Ezra 7: 4; 8: 4
  • Ze´ nas (cf. Zenos) – the name “Zenas” occurs 1 time in the New Testament. More information regarding the name "Zenos" may be found here.
    • Titus 3: 13
  • Ze-or´ im [and,] – the name “Zeorim” does not occur in the Old Testament or the New Testament
  • Ze´ rah (cf. Zeram, Zeezrom) – the name “Zerah” occurs 20 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Zeram" may be found here. More information regarding the name "Zeezrom" may be found here.
    • Genesis 36: 13, 17, 33; 46: 12
    • Numbers 26: 13, 20
    • Joshua 7: 1, 18, 24; 22: 20
    • 1 Chronicles 1: 37, 44; 2: 4, 6; 4: 24; 6: 21, 41; 9: 6
    • 2 Chronicles 14: 9
    • Nehemiah 11: 24
  • Ze´ phi, or Ze´ pho (cf. Zenephi) – the name “Zephi” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. The name “Zepho” occurs 2 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Zenephi" may be found here.
    • Zephi - The name "Zephi" occurs 1 time in the Old Testament.

1 Chronicles 1: 36

    • Zepho – Genesis 36: 11, 15
  • Ze´ rah (cf. Zeram) – the name “Zerah” occurs 20 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Zeram" may be found here.
    • Genesis 36: 13, 17, 33; 46: 13
    • Numbers 26: 13, 20
    • Joshua 7: 1, 18, 24; 22: 20
    • 1 Chronicles 1: 36; 2: 4; 6; 4: 24; 6: 21, 41; 9: 6
    • 2 Chronicles 14: 9
    • Nehemiah 11: 24
  • Zer-a-hi´ ah (cf. Zarahemla) – the name “Zerahiah” occurs 5 times in the Old Testament. More information regarding the name "Zarahemla" may be found here.
    • 1 Chronicles 6: 6 (twice), 51
    • Ezra 7: 4; 8: 4
  • Ze´ ri (cf. Zerin) – the name “Zeri” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Zerin" may be found here.
    • 1 Chronicles 25: 3
  • Ziph (cf. Ziff) – the name “Ziph” occurs 10 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name of the material denominated "Ziff" may be found here.
    • Joshua 15: 24, 55
    • 1 Samuel 23: 14, 15, 24; 26: 2 (twice)
    • 1 Chronicles 2: 42; 4: 16
    • 2 Chronicles 11: 8
  • Zo´ rah (cf. Zoram) – the name occurs 8 times in the Old Testament. More information on the name "Zoram" may be found here.
    • Joshua 19: 41
    • Judges 13: 2, 25; 16: 31; 18: 2, 8, 11
  • Zo´ rath-ites [and,] – the tribal name “Zorathite[s]” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament
    • 1 Chronicles 4: 2
  • Zo´ rites (cf. Zoramites) – the tribal name “Zorite[s]” occurs 1 time in the Old Testament. More information regarding the tribal name "Zoramites" may be found here.
    • 1 Chronicles 2: 54

Additional reading and video content

Benjamin McGuire reviews the rest of Grunder's work in Mormon Parallels in these two articles published by Interpreter: A Journal of Latter-day Saint Faith and Scholarship.

Notes

  1. David Noel Freedman, "Mani" in Anchor Bible Dictionary: Volume 4 K-N 6 vols. (New York City: Doubleday, 1992), 4:502.